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The McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook (2nd edition)

Welcome To McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook

Learning Resources for Chapter 20

The World Bank, “How Much Does Infrastructure Contribute to GDP Growth? World Bank Research Digest,” 5: 4 (September 2011) available at

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstracts of the United States: 2012, Table 781. “Net Stock of Private Fixed Assets by Industry: 2000 to 2009” (2012) available at citing U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2010) Table 3.1ES, Current-Cost Net Stock of Private Fixed Assets by Industry,; earlier estimates were provide by Gould, J.P. and A.C. Lemer, eds. (1994) Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, p. 18.

A. Altshuler, "Infrastructure Investment" (Book Review), Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 8 (1989): 506. See also D. C. Perry, "Building the Public City: An Introduction," in D. C. Perry (Ed.), Building the Public City. The Politics, Governance, and Finance of Public Infrastructure (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1995), pp. 1-20.

  S. M. Rinaldi, J. P. Peerenboom, and T. K. Kelly, "Identifying, Understanding, and Analyzing Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies," IEEE Control Systems (December 2001): 12; citing the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, Critical Foundations: Protecting America’s Infrastructures (1997). [Online]. Available:

U.S. Executive Office of the President, "The Clinton Administration’s Policy on Critical Infrastructure Protection: Presidential Decision Directive 63" (22 May 1998).

U.S. Patriot  Act of 2001.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP), (Washington, DC: DHS, 2009), p. 3.

T. D. O’Rourke, Y. Wang, and P. Shi, "Advances in Lifeline Earthquake Engineering," Proceedings of the Thirteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (Vancouver, Calif., 1-6 August 2004).

R. Prieto, "The 3Rs: Lessons Learned from September 11," presented at the Royal Academy of Engineering, 2002.

R. Zimmerman, "Planning and Administration: Frameworks and Case studies," in John Ingleton (Ed.), Natural Disaster Management (Leicester: Tudor Rose, 1999), pp. 225-7.

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) “Highway Accident Report: Collapse of the I-35W highway bridge, Minneapolis, MN, August 1, 2007” (2008) available at

P. Choate and S. Walter, America in Ruins (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1983). 

NTSB, “History of the NTSB,” available at

North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), "Examples of Major Bulk Electric System Power Outages," n.d.;, accessed 26 September 2004.

J.S. Simonoff, C.E. Restrepo, and R. Zimmerman, “Risk Management and Risk Analysis-Based Decision Tools for Attacks on Electric Power,” Risk Analysis 27:3 (2007): 547-570.

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Report Card for America’s Infrastructure. (Washington, D.C.: ASCE);

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) report cards for 2005 and 2009 are respectively available at: and

U.S. DHS, National Incident Management System (NIMS) (Washington, DC: U.S. DHS, 2009) available at

National Research Council (NRC), Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002).

U.S. DHS National Response Framework (2008), available at

Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies, “Protecting Surface Transportation Systems and Patrons from Terrorist Activities,” (Washington, DC: Mineta Institute, 1997), p. 23.

START, “Background report: on the fifth anniversary of the 7/7 London transit attack,” (Baltimore, MD: U. of Maryland, START, 2010) available at, p. 6. 

R. Zimmerman, Transport, the Environment and Security (Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012), Chapter 7.

  J.S. Simonoff, C.E. Restrepo, and R. Zimmerman with the assistance of W.E. Remington, “Trends for Oil and Gas Terrorist Attacks,” I3P Report No. 2 (Hanover, NH: The Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P), November 2005), available at

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), “Critical Infrastructure Protection: Significant Challenges Need to be Addressed,” GAO-02-961T, 2002, available at, pp. 13-14.

Chicago Tribune, “Tampering blamed in power outage,” Chicago Tribune (12 October 2004), available at

R. Zimmerman, "Water," in R. Zimmerman and T. Horan (Eds.), Digital Infrastructures: Enabling Civil and Environmental Systems through Information Technology (London: Routledge, 2004a), p. 80.

A. S. Khan, D. L. Swerdlow, and D. D. Juranek, "Precautions against Biological and Chemical Terrorism Directed at Food and Water Supplies," Public Health Reports 116 (2001), p. 7.

P. Cachia, "Saboteur Contaminates Water Supply at Ta’ Kandja," di-ve news, 10 November 2003; < null>, accessed 4 December 2003. 

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) [renamed U.S. Government Accountability Office], "Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges and Efforts to Secure Control Systems," GAO-04-354 (March 2004), p. 17.

START, “Background report: 9/11, ten years later,” (Baltimore, MD: U. of Maryland, START, 2011), available at, p. 4.

Symantec Corporation, “Internet security threat report trends for 2010,” 16 (2011), available at

R. Zimmerman, "Social Implications of Infrastructure Network Interactions," in Sustaining Urban Networks: The Social Diffusion of Large Technical Systems (London: Routledge, 2005), p. 69.

R. Zimmerman, "Decision-Making and the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure," Proceedings of IEEE International on Systems, Man,and Cybernetics (2004b).

T. D. O’Rourke, "Prospectus for Lifelines and Infrastructure Research," in B. Stenquist (Ed.), The Art and Science of Structural Engineering: Proceedings of the Symposium Honoring William J. Hal (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1993) pp. 37-58.

R. Zimmerman, "Public Infrastructure Service Flexibility for Response and Recovery in the September 11th, 2001, Attacks at the World Trade Center," in Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Public Entity Risk Institute, and Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems, Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research, Special Publication 39. (Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, 2003a), pp. 241—268.

National Research Council, “The Internet under Crisis Conditions: Learning from September 11” (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2003).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Development, Community, and Environment:- Our Built and Natural Environments,” (Washington, D.C.: EPA, November 2000).

R. Zimmerman and T. Horan (Eds.), Digital Infrastructures: Enabling Civil and Environmental Systems through Information Technology (London: Routledge, 2004); see the editors' article "What Are Digital Infrastructures?" p. 71.

  US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. DOT; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit database. These trends are covered extensively in R. Zimmerman, Transport, the Environment and Security. Making the Connection (Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd., 2012), Chapter 2.

Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA), "Semiannual Wireless Industry Survey" (Washington, D.C.: CTIA, 2010). 

D. Bart, Presentation for the Defense Standardization Program Conference: An Update on ANSI Homeland Security Standards Panel (HSSP), ANSI-HSSP, Private Sector Cochair, 17 March 2004.

R. Zimmerman, “Water,” in Digital Infrastructures, edited by R. Zimmerman and T. Horan (London, UK: Routledge 2005), p. 81, citing U.S. EPA “The Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis” September 2002, Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, available at

U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997;, accessed 29 October 2004. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE, EIA), 2000;, accessed 29 October 2004.

Computed from U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, “State Ranking 1.  Total Energy Production, 2009 (trillion Btu)” 2009

D. Schrank, T. Lomax and B. Eisele, “2011 Urban Mobility Report” (College Station, TX, USA: The Texas A&M University System, Texas Transportation Institute, 2011) available at, p. 5 and computed from p. 24.

American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Public Transportation Fact Book 2011, (Washington, DC: APTA 2011), pp. 7-8.

R. Clemen and T. Reilly, Making Hard Decisions with Decision Tools (Pacific Grove, Calif.: Duxbury, 2001), pp. 67—68. 

U.S. GAO, "Critical Infrastructure Protection: Significant Challenges Need to Be Addressed," GAO-02-961T, 24 July 2002, p. 14.

Y. Haimes and P. Jiang, "Leontief-Model of Risk in Complex Interconnected Infrastructures," Journal of Infrastructure Systems 7: 1 (2001): 1-12.

D. Henry and J. Dumagen, "Economics," in R. Zimmerman and T.A. Horan (Eds.), Digital Infrastructures: Enabling Civil and Environmental Systems through Information Technology. (London: Routledge, 2004), p. 155. 

A. Rose, J. Benavides, S. Chang, P. Szczesniak, D. Lim, "The Regional Economic Impact of an Earthquake: Direct and Indirect Effects of Electricity Lifeline Disruptions," Journal of Regional Science, 37: 3 (1997): 437-458.

H. Martz and M. Johnston, "Risk Analysis of Terrorist Attack," Risk Analysis 7 (1987): 35-47.

E. Pate­Cornell, "Probabilistic Modeling of Terrorist Threats: A System Analysis Approach to Setting Priorities Counter Measures," Military Operations Research 7: 4 (December 2002), pp. 5-20.

 G. Apostolakis, "The Concept of Probability in Safety Assessments of Technological Systems," Science 250:7 (7 December 1990). 

Y. Haimes, Risk Modeling, Assessment and Management (New York: Wiley, 2004), and earlier editions.

B. Ezell, J. V. Farr, and I Wiese, "Infrastructure Risk Analysis Model" and "Infrastructure Risk Analysis of Municipal Water Distribution System," Journal of Infrastructure Systems 6:3 (2000): 114-117, 118-122.

M. Leung, J. H. Lambert, and A. Mosenthal, "A Risk-Based Approach to Setting Priotities in Protecting Bridges against Terrorist Attacks," Risk Analysis 24:2 (2004): 963-984.

L. Mili, Q. Qiu, and A. G. Phadke, "Risk Assessment of Catastrophic Failures in Electric Power Systems," International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 1: 1 (2004): 38-63. 

B. Fischhoff, P. Slovic, S, Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs, "How Safe Is Safe Enough: A Psychometric Study of Attitudes toward Technological Risks and Benefits," in P. Slovic (Ed.), The Perception of Risk (London and Sterling, Va.: Earthscan, 2000), pp. 80-103.

B. Fischhoff, "Assessing and Communicating the Risks of Terrorism," in A. H. Teich, S. D. Nelson, and S. J. Lita (Eds.), Science and Technology in a Vulnerable World (Washington, D.C.: AAAS, 2002), pp. 51-64. 

B. Fischhoff, R. M. Gonzalez, D. A. Small, and J. S. Lerner, "Evaluating the Success of Terror Risk Communications," Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science  1 (2003): 255-258.

R. Zimmerman, Decision-making and the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (2004).

R. Zimmerman and C. E. Restrepo, “The Next Step: Quantifying Infrastructure Interdependencies to Improve Security,” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 2:2/3 (2006): 215-230.

National Academy of Engineering, Computer Science, and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), “Critical Information Infrastructure Protection and the Law: An Overview of Key Issues,” (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2003).;, accessed 30 October 2004.

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, “The 9/11 Commission Report,” (New York: Norton, 2004).

K. G. Herron and H. C. Jenkins-Smith, “U.S. Public Response to Terrorism: Panel Study 2001—2002” (College Station: Texas A&M University, August 2003), pp. 3, 22-28; table 2.5.

Electricity Consumers Resource Council, "The Economic Impacts of the August 2003 Blackout" (2 February 2004).

U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, “Final Report on the August 14th 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations” (April 2004).

R. Zimmerman, "NYC Needs Systems to Blunt New Blackouts," Newsday (27 August 2003b), p. A31.

R. Truly, "New Energy Systems Enhance National Security," DOE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (14 March 2002);

U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2010 (October 2011), p. 290.

C. Lenatti, "Nanotech’s First Block-busters," Technology Review (March 2004): 46-52.